The Labelling and Packaging of Wine in European and Italian Perspectives Duilio Cortassa 1 1. Introduction; 1.1. The European early framework; 1.2. The developments after 1970; 1.3. The single CMO and the labelling and presentation rules; 2. Labelling and Presentation of Wines after the 2009 Regulations; 2.1. Rules on the labelling of foodstuffs applying to the wine sector; 2.2. Harmonising the labelling for all wine sector products; 2.3. Implementing labelling and packaging rules; 2.4. The single visual field and the indelible characters; 2.5. Bottler, producer, importer and vendor; 2.6. Conflicts between the name of the bottler, producer, importer or vendor and a PDO or a PGI; 2.7. Terms referred to a holding; 2.8. Names of geographical units smaller or larger than the area underlying the PDO or PGI; 3. Wine Labelling; 3.1. Entering into force of the current CMO; 3.2. What should be indicated on the bottle of wine?; 4. The Italian Case; 4.1. Domestic law on wine labelling and packaging; 4.2. PDO and PGI in Italian law; 4.3. Details of the Italian wine labelling; 4.4. Definitions, characteristics and use of particular containers; 4.5. Names of geographical units smaller or larger than the area underlying the PDO or PGI; 4.6. Varietal wines. 1. INTRODUCTION Before being the subject of specific rules, both at national and at European level, the wine label and the bottle are the tools available to the consumer to understand what he is buying. We may well say that the label is the primary source of information for the consumer since it tells the type and origin of the wine. Seldom has the consumer another accessible resource for evaluating the wine before purchasing it. Included in the wine label is usually certain 1 Partner at LJLex Studio Legale.