Geographical Indications and Designations of Origin in the Wine Field: Italian and European Perspectives Paola Gelato 1 Stefano Vergano 2 1. Introduction; 2. Geographical Indications and Designations of Origin; 3. Relationship between Designations of Origin, Geographical Indications, Collective Trademarks and Certification Trademarks; 4. Sanctions due to the Infringement of Designations of Origin and Geographical Indications; 5. Conclusions. 1. INTRODUCTION Wine production constitutes a crucial field of the Italian economic system, representing, at the same time, a fundamental cultural heritage and one of the leading products, likely to identify the country all over the world. Article 1 of the Italian Consolidated Law on Wine 3 expressly describes wine production and the vineyards territories, with the producers’ traditional knowledge, as a national cultural heritage, which may not be surprising, as the wine field plays a significant role in the general Italian economy, with the Italian wine market having a value of about 14 million euros 4 . A remarkable characteristic of Italian wine production is that every region and every district have their own typical and unique features. Consumers may appreciate this rich variety of products, characterised by an absolute biodiversity, from Piedmont’s famous red wines, such as Barolo and Barbera , to Sicily’s sweet 1 Partner at Jacobacci Law Firm. 2 Trainee Lawyer at Jacobacci Law Firm 3 Law No. 238 of 12 December 2016. 4 For a detailed analysis of the value of the Italian wine market, see: https://www.unioneitalianavini.it/vino-italiano-vale-14-mld-di-euro-ma-si-puo-fare-di-piu/, https://www.corriere.it/economia/aziende/19_aprile_07/vinitaly-solo-vino-vale-143-miliardi- 28percento-consumi-italiani-3caafd52-591b-11e9-859f-47e26e3c4c3e.shtml a nd https://www.repubblica.it/economia/rapporti/osserva-italia/il- vino/2019/04/07/news/il_vino_e_gli_italiani_amore_da_14_3_miliardi_di_euro-223382047/.